Purinergic signaling in tanycytes and its contribution to nutritional sensing

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2021

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Springer

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Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaiso

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Resumen

Tanycytes are hypothalamic radial glial-like cells with an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. These cells have been implicated in glucose, amino acids, and fatty acid sensing in the hypothalamus of rodents, where they are strategically positioned. While their cell bodies contact the cerebrospinal fluid, their extensive processes contact neurons of the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei, protagonists in the regulation of food intake. A growing body of evidence has shown that purinergic signaling plays a relevant role in this homeostatic role of tanycytes, likely regulating the release of gliotransmitters that will modify the activity of satiety-controlling hypothalamic neurons. Connexin hemichannels have proven to be particularly relevant in these mechanisms since they are responsible for the release of ATP from tanycytes in response to nutritional signals. On the other hand, either ionotropic or metabotropic ATP receptors are involved in the generation of intracellular Ca2+ waves in response to hypothalamic nutrients, which can spread between glial cells and towards neighboring neurons. This review will summarize recent evidence that supports a nutrient sensor role for tanycytes, highlighting the participation of purinergic signaling in this process.

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Palabras clave

TANYCYTES, NUTRIENT SENSING, PURINERGIC SIGNALING, FEEDING, CONNEXIN, PANNEXIN

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