The ALPINE–ALMA [CII] Survey: Size of Individual Star-forming Galaxies at z = 4–6 and Their Extended Halo Structure

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2020

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American Astronomical Society

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We present the physical extent of [C ii] 158 μm line-emitting gas from 46 star-forming galaxies at z = 4–6 from the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate C ii at Early Times (ALPINE). Using exponential profile fits, we measure the effective radius of the [C ii] line (${r}_{{\rm{e}},[{\rm{C}}{\rm\small{II}}]}$) for individual galaxies and compare them with the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum (${r}_{{\rm{e}},\mathrm{UV}}$) from Hubble Space Telescope images. The effective radius ${r}_{{\rm{e}},[{\rm{C}}{\rm\small{II}}]}$ exceeds ${r}_{{\rm{e}},\mathrm{UV}}$ by factors of ~2–3, and the ratio of ${r}_{{\rm{e}},[{\rm{C}}{\rm\small{II}}]}/{r}_{{\rm{e}},\mathrm{UV}}$ increases as a function of Mstar. We do not find strong evidence that the [C ii] line, rest-frame UV, and far-infrared (FIR) continuum are always displaced over sime1 kpc scale from each other. We identify 30% of isolated ALPINE sources as having an extended [C ii] component over 10 kpc scales detected at 4.1σ–10.9σ beyond the size of rest-frame UV and FIR continuum. One object has tentative rotating features up to ~10 kpc, where the 3D model fit shows the rotating [C ii]-gas disk spread over 4 times larger than the rest-frame UV-emitting region. Galaxies with the extended [C ii] line structure have high star formation rate, high stellar mass (Mstar), low Lyα equivalent width, and more blueshifted (redshifted) rest-frame UV metal absorption (Lyα line), as compared to galaxies without such extended [C ii] structures. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that a selection bias toward luminous objects may be responsible for such trends, the star-formation-driven outflow also explains all these trends. Deeper observations are essential to test whether the extended [C ii] line structures are ubiquitous to high-z star-forming galaxies.

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GALAXY EVOLUTION, GALAXY FORMATION, CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM, INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

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