Mast Cell and Astrocyte Hemichannels and Their Role in Alzheimer’s Disease, ALS, and Harmful Stress Conditions

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2021

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Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaiso

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Resumen

Considered relevant during allergy responses, numerous observations have also identified mast cells (MCs) as critical effectors during the progression and modulation of several neuroinflammatory conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MC granules contain a plethora of constituents, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and mitogen factors. The release of these bioactive substances from MCs occurs through distinct pathways that are initiated by the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors/channels. Here, we focus on hemichannels (HCs) formed by connexins (Cxs) and pannexins (Panxs) proteins, and we described their contribution to MC degranulation in AD, ALS, and harmful stress conditions. Cx/Panx HCs are also expressed by astrocytes and are likely involved in the release of critical toxic amounts of soluble factors—such as glutamate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), complement component 3 derivate C3a, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), apoliprotein E (ApoE), and certain miRNAs—known to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD, ALS, and other neurodegenerative disorders. We propose that blocking HCs on MCs and glial cells offers a promising novel strategy for ameliorating the progression of neurodegenerative diseases by reducing the release of cytokines and other pro-inflammatory compounds.

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HEMICHANNELS, CONNEXIN, PANNEXIN, MAST CELLS, GLIAL CELLS, INFLAMMATION, DEGRANULATION, NEURODEGENERATION, PRO-INFLAMMATORY COMPOUNDS, GAP JUNCTION CHANNELS

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Published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license

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