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  • Ítem
    Visible Light Communications towards 5G
    (Radioengineering, 2015) Zvanovec, S.; Chvojka, P.; Haigh, P. A.; Ghassemlooy, Z.
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    A world's first attempt of mixed-reality system guided inferior vena cava filter implantation under remote guidance of 5G communication
    (J Geriatr Cardiol, 2021) Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Gong, G.; Zhao, M. X.; Liu, L.; Yao, S. Y.; Wang, C.; Li, X.; Chen, Y. D.
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    Supply chain security evaluation model and index system based on a 5G information system
    (Neural Comput Appl, 2021) Zhao, J.; Li, Y.
    "Currently, the supply chain management model has been widely adopted worldwide. Internationally renowned companies such as IBM and Walmart have made significant achievements in supply chain management and have played a greater role in promoting the growth of their interests. However, while they are enjoying their own interests, they are also facing various risks in the supply chain. From the perspective of systems engineering, this paper uses complex network theory as a research tool to study supply chain networks and systematically study the important issues of supply chain network risks. This paper analyzes the new characteristics of the relationship between enterprises and suppliers in the supply chain and which indicators should be selected as the basis for evaluating suppliers from the perspective of cooperation and development, which more comprehensively reflects the characteristics of the new enterprise-supplier relationship in the supply chain environment. This highlights the evaluation of the supplier's cooperation ability and development ability. Aiming at the problem of supply chain network system identification and integrated evaluation, a supply chain security evaluation model and index system research framework model are proposed, and the intercompany business risk and supply chain in supply chain network evaluation are introduced. As a model for evaluating transition parameters, the study of supply chain risk propagation introduces the theory of dynamic propagation in complex networks, the law of evolution, and the supplier's dynamic supply chain risk model. The experimental results of this paper show that when the global reputation value is 0.5 and the local reputation value is 0.8 and 0.7, the trust degree changes with the change of the confidence factor"," when the value of the confidence factor decreases, the degree of trust converges more and more to the global reputation and vice versa. It can be seen that this model has high feasibility."
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    "Cooperative localization in 5G networks&58"," A survey"
    (ICT Express, 2017) Zhang, Ping; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiao
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    Modeling the Impact of 5G Leakage on Weather Prediction
    (ArXiv e-prints, 2020) Yousefvand, Mohammad; Wu, Chung-Tse Michael; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Brodie, Joseph; Mandayam, Narayan
    The 5G band allocated in the 26 GHz spectrum referred to as 3GPP band n258, has generated a lot of anxiety and concern in the meteorological data forecasting community including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Unlike traditional spectrum coexistence problems, the issue here stems from the leakage of n258 band transmissions impacting the observations of passive sensors (e.g. AMSU-A) operating at 23.8 GHz on weather satellites used to detect the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, which in turn affects weather forecasting and predictions. In this paper, we study the impact of 5G leakage on the accuracy of data assimilation based weather prediction algorithms by using a first order propagation model to characterize the effect of the leakage signal on the brightness temperature (atmospheric radiance) and the induced noise temperature at the receiving antenna of the passive sensor (radiometer) on the weather observation satellite. We then characterize the resulting inaccuracies when using the Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation model (WRFDA) to predict temperature and rainfall. For example, the impact of 5G leakage of -20dBW to -15dBW on the well-known Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak data set, affects the meteorological forecasting up to 0.9 mm in precipitation and 1.3 �C in 2m-temperature. We outline future directions for both improved modeling of 5G leakage effects as well as mitigation using cross-layer antenna techniques coupled with resource allocation.
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    5G Edge Computing Enabled Directional Data Collection for Medical Community Electronic Health Records
    (J Healthc Eng, 2021) Yan, X.; Ren, X.
    It is important to promote the development and application of hospital information system, community health service system, etc. However, it is difficult to realize the intercommunication between various information systems because it is not enough to realize the in-depth management of health information. To address these issues, we design the 5G edge computing-assisted architecture for medical community. Then, we formulate the directional data collection (DDC) problem to gather the EMR/HER data from the medical community to minimize the service error under the deadline constraint of data collection deadline. Moreover, we design the data direction prediction algorithm (DDPA) to predict the data collection direction and propose the data collection planning algorithm (DCPA) to minimize the data collecting time cost. Through the numerical simulation experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed algorithms can decrease the total time cost by 62.48% and improve the data quality by 36.47% through the designed system, respectively.
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    Fuentes de alimentación para estaciones base 5G al aire libre
    (Revista española de electrónica, 2021) Wu, Williard; Olfer
    Información del artículo Fuentes de alimentación para estaciones base 5G al aire libre
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    Desempeño de los métodos de detección de señales con modulación QPSK en sistema GFDM para 5G
    (Sensors (Basel), 2020) Verde, S.; Marcon, M.; Milani, S.; Tubaro, S.
    Internet of Things (IoT) applications play a relevant role in today's industry in sharing diagnostic data with off-site service teams, as well as in enabling reliable predictive maintenance systems. Several interventions scenarios, however, require the physical presence of a human operator: Augmented Reality (AR), together with a broad-band connection, represents a major opportunity to integrate diagnostic data with real-time in-situ acquisitions. Diagnostic information can be shared with remote specialists that are able to monitor and guide maintenance operations from a control room as if they were in place. Furthermore, integrating heterogeneous sensors with AR visualization displays could largely improve operators' safety in complex and dangerous industrial plants. In this paper, we present a complete setup for a remote assistive maintenance intervention based on 5G networking and tested at a Vodafone Base Transceiver Station (BTS) within the Vodafone 5G Program. Technicians' safety was improved by means of a lightweight AR Head-Mounted Display (HDM) equipped with a thermal camera and a depth sensor to foresee possible collisions with hot surfaces and dangerous objects, by leveraging the processing power of remote computing paired with the low latency of 5G connection. Field testing confirmed that the proposed approach can be a viable solution for egocentric environment understanding and enables an immersive integration of the obtained augmented data within the real scene.
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    Advanced Assistive Maintenance Based on Augmented Reality and 5G Networking
    (Revista Cubana de Ciencias Informáticas, 2018) Verdecia Peña, Randy
    Current market demand requires that mobile communication networks need an increase in their transmission rate, as well as, the quality of services. Due to this fact, researchers in the area are working on the technology they will use in the physical layer of the next generation of the 5G cellular network. The Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM) system is one of the candidates for the physical layer of this technology. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a selection of methods for the detection of the GFDM system in 5G. In this work, the GFDM system was described, as well as, the Zero Forcing, Matched Filter and Parallel Interference Cancellation methods. The performance curves resulting from applying the detection methods are presented for Gaussian and Fixed channels also they are compared with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing system. As a result, for the two channels cases, the performance of the GFDM system for the Zero Forcing and Matched Filter detectors with Parallel Interference Cancellation have the same behavior as the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing system detected with Zero Forcing. It is concluded that the best detection method is the Matched Filter with Parallel Interference Cancellation because it has less computational complexity when it comes to recovering the signal sent by the transmitter. La demanda del mercado actual exige que las redes de comunicaciones m�viles necesiten un aumento de su tasa de transmisi�n, as� como, la calidad de los servicios. Debido a este hecho los investigadores del �rea trabajan sobre la tecnolog�a que utilizar�n en la capa f�sica de la siguiente generaci�n de la red celular 5G. El sistema de Multiplexaci�n por Divisi�n de Frecuencia Generalizada (GFDM) es una de las candidatas para la capa f�sicas de esta tecnolog�a. El objetivo de esta investigaci�n es evaluar el desempe�o de una selecci�n de m�todos para la detecci�n del sistema GFDM en 5G. En este trabajo fue descrito el sistema GFDM, as� como, los m�todos de detecci�n Zero Forcing, Filtro Casado y Cancelaci�n de Interferencia Paralela. Las curvas de desempe�os resultantes de aplicar los m�todos de detecci�n son presentadas para canal Gaussiano y Fijo adem�s son comparadas con el sistema Multiplexaci�n por Divisi�n de Frecuencias Ortogonales. Se tiene como resultado que, para los dos casos de canales, el desempe�o del sistema GFDM para los detectores Zero Forcing y Filtro Casado con Cancelaci�n Paralela de Interferencia, tienen el mismo comportamiento que el sistema Multiplexaci�n por Divisi�n de Frecuencias Ortogonales detectado con Zero Forcing. Se concluye que el mejor m�todo de detecci�n es el Filtro Casado con Cancelaci�n Paralela de Interferencia porque presenta menos complejidad computacional para la recuperaci�n de la se�al enviada por el transmisor.
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    La convergencia de la CiberSeguridad con las CiberArmas y el nacimiento del soldado virtual
    (Revista SIC: ciberseguridad, seguridad de la información y privacidad, 2021) Velasco, Juan Miguel
    Información del artículo La convergencia de la CiberSeguridad con las CiberArmas y el nacimiento del soldado virtual
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    Evaluación De Desplazamientos En Edificios De Hormigón Armado Para El Funcionamiento De Antenas 5G En Chile
    (Gaceta Técnica, 2020) Valdivia-Cortés, Felipe; Carvallo Walbaum, Jorge; Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos
    The imminent emergence of 5G networks in the Chilean telecommunications market has made it essential to anticipate the possible imbalances that these could r...
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    A Cost-Efficient 5G Non-Public Network Architectural Approach: Key Concepts and Enablers, Building Blocks and Potential Use Cases
    (Sensors (Basel), 2021) Trakadas, P.; Sarakis, L.; Giannopoulos, A.; Spantideas, S.; Capsalis, N.; Gkonis, P.; Karkazis, P.; Rigazzi, G.; Antonopoulos, A.; Cambeiro, M. A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, S.; Conceição, L.
    The provision of high data rate services to mobile users combined with improved quality of experience (i.e., zero latency multimedia content) drives technological evolution towards the design and implementation of fifth generation (5G) broadband wireless networks. To this end, a dynamic network design approach is adopted whereby network topology is configured according to service demands. In parallel, many private companies are interested in developing their own 5G networks, also referred to as non-public networks (NPNs), since this deployment is expected to leverage holistic production monitoring and support critical applications. In this context, this paper introduces a 5G NPN architectural approach, supporting among others various key enabling technologies, such as cell densification, disaggregated RAN with open interfaces, edge computing, and AI/ML-based network optimization. In the same framework, potential applications of our proposed approach in real world scenarios (e.g., support of mission critical services and computer vision analytics for emergencies) are described. Finally, scalability issues are also highlighted since a deployment framework of our architectural design in an additional real-world scenario related to Industry 4.0 (smart manufacturing) is also analyzed.
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    Location-Privacy Leakage and Integrated Solutions for 5G Cellular Networks and Beyond
    (Sensors (Basel), 2021) Tomasin, S.; Centenaro, M.; Seco-Granados, G.; Roth, S.; Sezgin, A.
    The fifth generation (5G) of cellular networks improves the precision of user localization and provides the means to disclose location information to over-the-top (OTT) service providers. The network data analytics function (NWDAF) can further elaborate this information at an aggregated level using artificial intelligence techniques. These powerful features may lead to the improper use of user location information by mobile network operators (MNOs) and OTT service providers. Moreover, vulnerabilities at various layers may also leak user location information to eavesdroppers. Hence, the privacy of users is likely at risk, as location is part of their sensitive data. In this paper, we first go through the evolution of localization in cellular networks and investigate their effects on location privacy. Then, we propose a location-privacy-preserving integrated solution comprising virtual private mobile networks, an independent authentication and billing authority, and functions to protect wireless signals against location information leakage. Moreover, we advocate the continuous and detailed control of localization services by the user.
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    5G and human health
    (J buon, 2021) Theodorou, K.; Tyrakis, C.; Softa, V.; Kappas, C.
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    5G-Enabled Autonomous Driving Demonstration with a V2X Scenario-in-the-Loop Approach
    (Sensors (Basel), 2020) Szalay, Z.; Ficzere, D.; Tihanyi, V.; Magyar, F.; Soós, G.; Varga, P.
    Autonomous vehicles are at the forefront of interest due to the expectations of changing transportation for the better. In order to make better decisions on the road, vehicles use information from various sources: their own sensors, messages arriving from surrounding vehicles and objects, as well as from centralized entities-including their own Digital Twin. Certain decisions require the information to arrive with low latency and some of this information (such as video) requires broadband communication. Furthermore, the vehicles can populate an area, so they can represent mass communication endpoints that still need low latency and massive broadband. The mobility of the vehicles obviously requires the complete coverage of the roads with reliable wireless communication technologies fulfilling the previously mentioned needs. The fifth generation of cellular mobile technologies, 5G, addresses these requirements. The current paper presents real-life scenarios-on the M86 highway and the ZalaZONE proving ground in Hungary-for the demonstration of vehicular communication with 5G support, where the cars exchange sensor and control information with each other, their environment, and their Digital Twins. The demonstrations were carried out through the Scenario-in-the-Loop (SciL) methodology, where some of the actionable triggers were not physically present around the vehicles, but sensed or simulated around their Digital Twin. The measurements around the demonstrations aim to reveal the feasibility of the 5G Non-Standalone Architecture for certain communication scenarios, and they mainly aim to reveal the current latency and throughput limitations under real-life conditions.
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    The potential impact of 5G telecommunication technology on ophthalmology
    (Eye (Lond), 2021) Singh, G.; Casson, R.; Chan, W.
    Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) are having an increasing impact on the practice of ophthalmology. Successive generations of 4G networks have provided continued improvements in bandwidth and download speeds. Fibre-optic networks were promised as the next step in the development of a faster and more reliable network. However, due to considerable delays in their widespread implementation, original expectations have not been met. Currently, the new 5G network is on the verge of widespread release and aims to offer previously unparalleled bandwidth, speed, reliability and access. This review aims to highlight the potential profound impact near instantaneous communication (the 5G network) may have on ophthalmology and the delivery of eyecare to the global population. Conversely, if the new network fails to deliver as intended, the wireless network itself may become yet another obstacle to adopting next-generation technologies in eyecare. Publisher: Abstract available from the publisher. chi
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    5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz
    (International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019) Simkó, Myrtill; Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication will increase the number of high-frequency-powered base stations and other devices. The question is if such higher frequencies (in this review, 6-100 GHz, millimeter waves, MMW) can have a health impact. This review analyzed 94 relevant publications performing in vivo or in vitro investigations. Each study was characterized for: study type (in vivo, in vitro), biological material (species, cell type, etc.), biological endpoint, exposure (frequency, exposure duration, power density), results, and certain quality criteria. Eighty percent of the in vivo studies showed responses to exposure, while 58% of the in vitro studies demonstrated effects. The responses affected all biological endpoints studied. There was no consistent relationship between power density, exposure duration, or frequency, and exposure effects. The available studies do not provide adequate and sufficient information for a meaningful safety assessment, or for the question about non-thermal effects. There is a need for research regarding local heat developments on small surfaces, e.g., skin or the eye, and on any environmental impact. Our quality analysis shows that for future studies to be useful for safety assessment, design and implementation need to be significantly improved.
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    5G para industrias digitales
    (Revista ABB, 2021) Schulz, Dirk
    Información del artículo 5G para industrias digitales
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    Heterogeneous Wafer Bonding Technology and Thin-Film Transfer Technology-Enabling Platform for the Next Generation Applications beyond 5G
    (Micromachines (Basel), 2021) Ren, Z.; Xu, J.; Le, X.; Lee, C.
    Wafer bonding technology is one of the most effective methods for high-quality thin-film transfer onto different substrates combined with ion implantation processes, laser irradiation, and the removal of the sacrificial layers. In this review, we systematically summarize and introduce applications of the thin films obtained by wafer bonding technology in the fields of electronics, optical devices, on-chip integrated mid-infrared sensors, and wearable sensors. The fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers based on the Smart Cut(TM) process, heterogeneous integrations of wide-bandgap semiconductors, infrared materials, and electro-optical crystals via wafer bonding technology for thin-film transfer are orderly presented. Furthermore, device design and fabrication progress based on the platforms mentioned above is highlighted in this work. They demonstrate that the transferred films can satisfy high-performance power electronics, molecular sensors, and high-speed modulators for the next generation applications beyond 5G. Moreover, flexible composite structures prepared by the wafer bonding and de-bonding methods towards wearable electronics are reported. Finally, the outlooks and conclusions about the further development of heterogeneous structures that need to be achieved by the wafer bonding technology are discussed.
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    Reduction of 5G cellular network radiation in wireless mobile phone using an asymmetric square shaped passive metamaterial design
    (Sci Rep, 2021) Ramachandran, T.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Siddiky, A. M.; Islam, M. T.
    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of metamaterial application in absorption reduction of 5G electromagnetic (EM) energy in the human head tissue. In a general sense, the radio frequency (RF) energy that received by wireless mobile phone from the base station, will emit to surrounding when the devices are in active mode. Since the latest fifth generation technology standard for cellular networks is upon us, the emission of radiation from any wireless devices needs to be taken into consideration. This motivation helps to prepare this paper that focuses on construction of novel and compact square-shaped metamaterial (SM) design to reduce electromagnetic exposure to humans. The commercially available substrate material known as FR-4 with thickness of 1.6 mm was selected to place the metamaterial design on it. The electromagnetic properties and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) analyses were carried out numerically by utilising high-performance 3D EM analysis, Computer Simulation Technology Studio (CST) software. Meanwhile, for the validation purpose, the metamaterial designs for both unit and array cells were fabricated to measure the electromagnetic properties of the material. From the numerical simulation, the introduced SM design manifested quadruple resonance frequencies in multi bands precisely at 1.246 (at L-band), 3.052, 3.794 (at S-band), and 4.858 (C-band) GHz. However, the comparison of numerically simulated and measured data reveals a slight difference between them where only the second resonance frequency was decreased by 0.009 GHz while other frequencies were increased by 0.002, 0.045, and 0.117 GHz in sequential order. Moreover, the SAR analysis recorded high values at 3.794 GHz with 61.16% and 70.33% for 1 g and 10 g of tissue volumes, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrate strong SAR reduction effects, and the proposed SM design may be considered a promising aspect in the telecommunication field.